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Commun Sci Disord. 2021;26(1): 192-205.
Published online March 31, 2021.
doi: https://doi.org/10.12963/csd.21800
Effects of Input Modality, Vocal Rehearsal and Stimulus Length on Phonological Working Memory in Children with and without Speech Sound Disorders
Eun-Hye Jeona , and Ji-Wan Haa ,b
aDepartment of Speech and Language Pathology, Graduate School of Rehabilitation, Daegu University, Gyeongsan, Korea
bDepartment of Speech Pathology, Daegu University, Gyeongsan, Korea
Corresponding Author: Ji-Wan Ha ,Tel: +82-53-850-4327, Fax: +82-53-850-4329, Email: jw-ha@daegu.ac.kr
Received January 20, 2021  Revised: February 13, 2021   Accepted February 13, 2021
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The purpose of this study was to look at different variables (input modality, rehearsal condition, stimulus length) that may affect phonological working memory in children with speech sound disorders (SSD) and typically developing (TD) peers.
18 children with SSD and 21 TD peers participated in this study. They performed delayed digit span tasks according to three variables (visual input vs. auditory input, rehearsal vs. rehearsal inhibition, 4 digits vs. 6 digits). Retrieval and sequencing scores of task performances were compared between two groups.
First, the two groups did not show significant differences in retrieval scores. The main effects of input modality, rehearsal condition and stimulus length were significant, and the interaction effect among three variables was significant on retrieval scores. In the rehearsal condition, there was a benefit of visual input regardless of stimulus lengths, but in the rehearsal inhibition condition, its benefit appeared only in 4 digits. Second, the sequencing ability was not significantly different in both groups. All main effects were significant, and the interaction effect among three variables was significant on sequencing scores like on retrievals. There was significant interaction effect between rehearsal condition and group. The TD group’s sequencing performance was better than the SSD group in the rehearsal condition, but there were no significant differences between the two groups in the rehearsal inhibition condition.
Visual inputs, rehearsal condition, and short stimulus lengths are positive for phonological working memory performance in both groups. However, the rehearsal strategy was not as effective in children with SSD as it was with TD children.
Keywords: Speech sound disorder | Phonological working memory | Delayed digit span task | Visual input | Vocal rehearsal | Stimulus length
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