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Commun Sci Disord. 2020;25(4): 890-904.
Published online December 31, 2020.
doi: https://doi.org/10.12963/csd.20775
Developmental Phonological Error Patterns in a Word-Level Test for Children Aged 2-7 Years Old
Ji-Wan Haa , and Soo-Jin Kimb
aDepartment of Speech Pathology, Daegu University, Gyeongsan, Korea
bDepartment of Communication Disorders, Korea Nazarene University, Cheonan, Korea
Corresponding Author: Soo-Jin Kim ,Tel: +82-41-570-7978, Fax: +82-41-570-7846, Email: sjkim@kornu.ac.kr
Received October 20, 2020  Revised: November 16, 2020   Accepted November 16, 2020
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This paper reports a developmental study on two aspects of phonological error patterns: The incidence rate of error patterns and age-appropriate error patterns by age.
Speech samples of 620 typically developing children, aged between 2;6 and 7;11 years, randomly selected throughout Korea, were collected through the word-level test UTAP2 (Urimal Test of Articulation and Phonology 2). After performing error pattern analysis on the response data, the incidence rates of error patterns among age groups were compared; and by analyzing the error patterns used by at least 10% of the children in the same age group, age-appropriate error patterns error patterns were identified.
The incidence rate of phonological substitution patterns was the highest, and in particular, stopping of fricatives and affricates and liquid deletion were the most frequent. The age-appropriate error patterns were identified as follows. Velar fronting and tensing up to late 2 or early 3 years old, word-final code deletion and gliding of liquid up to late 3 years old, deletion of word-medial coda deletion, liquid deletion, stopping of fricatives and affricates, and assimilation of word-medial coda up to late 4 years old, nasalization of liquid up to early 5 years old, and (inter) dentalization up to 7 years old, all of which were age-appropriate.
This study is meaningful in that it established a classification system of developmental error patterns, and identified age-appropriate error patterns from a large sample of children by age.
Keywords: Phonological error patterns | Developmental error patterns | UTAP2 | Word-level test
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